Innovation - is a historically irrevocable change in the method of production of things.
J. Schumpeter


M.I. Tugan-Baranovsky

J.A. Schumpeter

N.D. Kondratiev

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Обращаем внимание на инновацию, созданную на данном сайте. Внизу главной страницы расположены графики,  которые в on line демонстрируют изменения цен на мировых рынках золота  и нефти, а также экономический календарь публикации в Интернете важных мировых экономических индексов 

 
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Макаренко И.П.

Problems of transition to informational society in Ukraine in the context of National innovational system creation

Igor Makarenko, Ph.D. in Economy

Institute of Evolutionary Economy

 

Forming of new economical policy in Ukraine is dictated by the tasks of transition to systemic innovations society. It has collided with a set of problems, which result from diverse points of view on the transition mechanisms. Scholar and practical conferences and discussions have demonstrated that. Also, problems with papers for the tasks have proved that.

Generally we can point out the following problems:

 

-        Simple understanding of innovation like designing and introduction of new products and technologies, the technological transfer or innovational diffusion, etc. The tendency results from weak national school of fundamental innovational investigations and absence of proper basis for their realization.

 

-        Interpretation of the innovational policy not as the strategy for leadership in innovational (especially in informational) technologies like a non-linear systemic process, but as simple and linear events. These events aim at bringing the economy and policy to the proportions, which were seen at western economies, and only to some of them.

 

-        Almost false understanding of institutes and institutionalism for favorable for innovations environment. It causes the same perception of renovating destruction. The renovating destruction is one of the major factors for the evolutionary economical process. It has either to change or to add to analogical mechanism of renovating destruction at the governmental institutions for scholar and technical evolution.

 

-        Ignoring the innovational differences with leading countries and with other countries. It should influence the special informational policy in Ukraine. Not only the State should support science and various informational projects, but also it should grant the need for so called adaptive period in the innovational policy. The policy and the adaptive economical parameters should differ from those of a leading country.

 

The situation can be explained by many objective and subjective reasons, and a scholar thought, which lags behind urgent problems, is among them. Official science brakes it too, as it does not promote new schools and trends, as it is too orthodox itself. The reasons include the policy of the governors, who are responsible for the budget means. They define themes for investigation, and their decisions come out of previous investigations and commands, but not out of the recommendations of scholars and innovators. They ignore recommendations, and the outcome of the innovational explorations. There is no national school for innovation as a systemic phenomenon. It is weak; scholars are not together, and they work only thanking to their enthusiasm.

 

Among various reasons we may mention the mistakes of modern policy. They are non-sufficient financial support of schools; and systemic mistakes in he defining of the priorities of economical development; and imperfect mechanisms of national economic reconstruction. The most typical mistake is that the State supports not innovational, but traditional economical sectors. It is not favorable for rising of the limiting product of capital, and proper income to the State budget.

 

But the most influential reason is the outdated social institutionalism in general. It has been formed for quite a long period, starting with Middle Ages, and the traditions of Rome and Byzantium passed by it.

 

It should be mentioned, that innovation is interrelated with the market environment. It is interrelated not only by evolution, but also by renovating destruction. It is absent in administrative society. Administrative, force, or even punishing political institutions substitute the evolution. Innovational policy should base on law and market relations. It should especially concern financial and monetary spheres of social relations and capital.

 

We cannot but admit a true statement of a Hungarian economist B.Santo. He considers, that innovation is first of all is a creative and active person, and the market is the environment, where innovation is like an airplane in the air. But free market relations form a new combination of factors. It is the innovation and is based on definite behavior rules, which are stated in the market institutionalism. It is like a football player is free to choose moves, and to improvise creatively on the basis of rigid and rational rules. In conditions of the market institutionalism this demand may be fulfilled only if people are informed about economical relations. Another condition is the approval for the actions of economical players and their judges at the public field of the country.

 

Through the prism of innovation, strategic perspective of economical favor of informing becomes clearer. Economical relations become transparent too, and it is the most important. Everybody has the right to know what is happening both in economy and in the society. This demand should become constitutional and obligatory norm of a country life if the country inspires for civilization and for leadership. So, the majority of people should approve every reform.

 

Through the innovational prism, the stated problem becomes clearer in another aspect. The market mechanism of renovating destruction works constantly and in every evolutionary period. The administrative mechanism works only for creation of favorable conditions and for protection of the existing innovative process. The next systemic innovations will cal for braking of the previous, and for building of a new and a proper management mechanism. It includes a new mechanism of renovating destruction.

 

Braking of the administrative mechanism of renovating destruction sooner or later stops working. All it does, it defends the old economy and institutionalism. It becomes clear to all people. It becomes traditional, conservative, and rejects the following innovation. History and experience prove, that economy and society cannot exist without the mechanism of renovating destruction. It is either overcome by more dynamic civilizations, or provokes revolutions and braking of an oppressive system. So the society changes its essence from time to time. It is not typical for the market. The market works so all the time, as it is constructed with the mechanism, which takes away old and useless products.

 Innovation is a process

 We understand innovation as a systemic process. It is not a single fact, or a number of facts of creation and introduction of new products and technologies (local innovations). Innovation as a systemic process also forms and improves the tools of economical policy, monetary and financial risks, and institutional environment. Without this introduction the innovation becomes complicated. Sometimes it is even impossible because of traditional economical and social rejection. Without a proper systemic innovational process, which involves all the economical sectors, it is too difficult to introduce local innovations because of many obstacles. And only the systemic character may help here.

 

To our mind, innovation as a systemic process should include the following features.

 

Innovation is a non-linear process. It forms new communication channels, and open and closed attractors. They involve such resources like capital, labor, intellect, natural resources, etc. On one hand, it limits the attractors channels, and on the other hand, it overcomes the traditional environment.

 

Innovation is a discreet process. When the local attractor becomes closed, and the processes start to regenerate cycle by cycle, the local (non-systemic) innovation is becoming traditional. The system with the innovation becomes stable, but the changes make it more open. Then, a new innovation forms a new attractor.

 

Innovation is a process of waves in economy and society. One of its major characteristics is that waves come and go out. It is the way social, economic, and even political processes work.

 

Innovation is a continuous and a discreet process of the evolutionary development both in national (regional) and in global economical spaces. Their continuous and discreet characters combine while a new order is formed out of chaos. It reflects in synergy, which is a universal law. The Universe has plenty of good examples of harmonious and dialectic combination of different characteristics in one phenomenon. One of them is the discreet and wavy nature of a sun rye.

 

Innovation as a systemic process includes development of economical and political tools. It influences the general policy. When political tools lag behind the systemic innovational process, social and political spheres suffer tension. It causes cycles in social life and may call revolutions, wars, and it promotes great changes in the world.

 

Institutes and institutionalism play an important role here. Forming of the new institutionalism is the demand of innovational systemic process. Stable social traditions and archetypes reject it. Overcoming them not always means breaking them. It means changes by an innovational process and evolution with it. It also reflects the highest respect for material and spiritual (humanitarian, cultural, and intellectual) values. In the center there is a person as the basis of the innovation. That is why innovation brings formation and evolutionary development of a new institutionalism.

 Conclusion

 Innovation is a non-linear and a dynamic process. It involves new and traditional production. It creates social, political, and institutional formations, and develops together with them. The major task is to create general economic circumstances for successful economic affairs.

Posted on the website: 2005-08-18

Comments on this article:

Дата: 2007-09-24     Коментарий добавил(а): автор

В чем собственно вопрос? Не совсем понятно на что отчечать. Вы же сами отметили, что в статье есть полный ответ на вопросы "что?", "где?" ... и т.д., а это - всегда в экономике главные вопросы и, аналогично, ответы на них, в том числе, включающие ответы на "почему?"
Я готов вступить в дискуссию, но пока мне не совсем понятно что обсуждать. Сформулируйте, пожалуйста проблему, которая Вас интересует, но только, пожалуйста, в рамках очерченной статьей темы и я с удовольствием с Вами пообщаюсь.

Дата: 2007-09-24     Коментарий добавил(а): профи

Все вышесказанное отвечает на вопрос "что?", "где?" и "когда?", в то время как инновационная модель развития должна отвечать на вопросы "почему?" и "где выход их тупика?". Ответ прост: французы говорят - когда у вас неприятности, то ищите женщину. Переворачиваем - если у вас приятности - значит найден нужный мужчина. Решение инновационных проблем Украины (да и любой страны вообще) в адекватном соотношении ее "инь" и "янь". А все остальное - демагогия.

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