Інновація - це історично безповоротна зміна способу виробництва речей.
Й. Шумпетер

М.І. Туган-Барановський

Й.А. Шумпетер

М.Д. Кондратьєв

Галерея видатних вчених


Обращаем внимание на инновацию, созданную на данном сайте. Внизу главной страницы расположены графики,  которые в on line демонстрируют изменения цен на мировых рынках золота  и нефти, а также экономический календарь публикации в Интернете важных мировых экономических индексов 

Гранти і конкурси

Тематика спільних інтересів ЄС та країн Причорноморського регіону (EU-BSEC) у галузі ...


Шановні колеги,

За результатами тематичних семінарів в рамках проекту „EU-Respot” була визначена тематика спільних інтересів ЄС та країн Причорноморського регіону (EU-BSEC) у галузі Енергетики,  Навколишнього середовища, Продуктів харчування, Сільського господарства та Біотехнологій.

Ці теми після більш конкретизованого аналізу будуть сформовані у пропозиції для ЄК з метою їх включення у Робочі програми наступних конкурсів РП7 з вищеназваних пріоритетів.

Запрошуємо Вас ознайомитися з запропонованою тематикою та визначити ті пропозиції в консорціумах з яких Ви б були зацікавлені прийняти участь.

Якщо Ваші дослідження відповідають визначеній тематиці надсилайте свої пропозиції

Проф. Димитросу Мавракісу epgsec@kepa.uoa.gr ( Prof.Dimitrios Mavrakis, Director of KEPA)


З повагою, Олена Коваль

National Information Center for Ukraine-EC S&T cooperation
National Information Point of Ukraine
Room#801, 180 Gorkiy street, Kyiv, 03680, Ukraine
tel/fax: 380+44 529-03-32

Thematic Workshop on ‘Energy’

Identification of topics of mutual EU – BSEC interest in the

Field of ‘Energy’ to be considered under FP7


Organized in the frame of the Project

‘Research Potential of the BSEC Countries – ResPot’

Funded by the Sixth Framework Programme of the EU

Istanbul, 13-14 November 2006





A. Introduction


The Black Sea region lies at the crossroads between East and West.  It constitutes the eastern border of the European Union as a result of Romania and Bulgaria joining the EU and provides the bridge to Central Asia and south Caspian, regions rich in energy sources that are of particular importance for EU. 


At a political level, cooperation of the EU with the countries of the Black Sea region has been increasing rapidly in recent years.  As a result, the EU has developed specific policies such as the European Neighbourhood Policy and the strategic partnership with the Russian Federation, while a dialogue is in progress for an enhanced BSEC[1] – EU relationship.


The wider Black Sea region is at the same time an important producer of oil and gas that need to transit towards the European market, but also a consumer of energy and a polluter due to outdated power generation capacity that needs extensive improvement.   In this context, the scientific and technological cooperation among the countries of the region as well as with the EU, which BSEC has put at the heart of its sustainable economic development policy[2], is of particular importance. This is especially true in the Energy field, since on the one hand it will contribute to an environmentally safe and cost-effective transport of resources towards EU and on the other hand it will provide solutions for development and implementation of sustainable energy systems with significant positive impact on the environment in the region and the rest of Europe.



B. Possibilities and means for successful participation in the core activities of FP7-Energy (i.e. ‘opening’ of the FP)

The general feeling is that the possibility to join EU consortia is known to researchers in the Black Sea region.  The dissemination of information on EU research activities is implemented through specific seminars held in several countries and organized by structures such as the National Contact Points (or National Information Points) set up under the aegis of the European Commission and the relevant national authorities. 

However, several barriers exist for successful participation in FP6.  Among these the following have been highlighted:

-         The contacts and links among researchers from the Black Sea region and the EU are weak.  This has been recognized by both sides (Black Sea countries and the EU).  When such direct contacts were established, they led to joint efforts and to successful projects.

-         In any case and despite the efforts of researchers from the Black Sea region, the initiative for joint projects rested mainly with researchers from the EU Member States.

-         The needs in research infrastructure, the linguistic barrier as well as the lack of knowledge in writing project proposals are also among the barriers to participation in EU research activities.


As it concerns the topping-up call, the main problem that has been encountered was once again the limited willingness of the coordinators from the EU to undertake the necessary procedures to participate in the Call due to the perceived limited added value of engaging regional partners in the project, in comparison with the additional administrative burden.  The information in the countries of the Black Sea region was available, the researchers from the region undertook pro-active initiatives but the final outcome was in most of the cases negative. 



C. Topics to be considered as Specific International Cooperation Activities (SICA)



1. Renewable Energy Sources


1.1 Hydrogen production from H2S-rich Black Sea Water



The Black Sea below a depth of approx. 100 meters has a high concentration of dissolved H2S. This could prove to be a potential source of hydrogen. It is proposed as a first step to investigate the optimum way of producing hydrogen from available sources including sea water and H2S. In a second step, the method chosen will be analysed in detail, in terms of its potential to be applied on a large scale.


Possible issues of research could include hydrogen production through seawater electrolysis (a process used for chlorine production where hydrogen is a by-product) investigating whether H2S would be a further source of Hydrogen or a detriment to the performance of the electrolyser cells. In case such a plant were to be installed on a sea platform, this could incorporate a wind turbine and wave energy devices to produce renewable electricity and use this energy to electrolyse the sea-water. An alternative way would be to separate the H2S from water and produce hydrogen.

The economic viability of the different options will be investigated.





This is an opportunity to investigate the potential of exploiting the unique features of the Black Sea water in order to produce low cost hydrogen from indigenous wind and wave energy sources, which could be used locally or exported in the long term to Europe. In the process, local expertise on the separation of H2S from water and water electrolysis can be utilized.


Expected Impact

Such research has the potential to lead to a novel hydrogen production pathway that will benefit the Black Sea region countries but also the EU (as a potential recipient of hydrogen). This potential hydrogen source could complement the other sources available to Europe in view of its transition to a hydrogen-inclusive economy.


Appropriate Tool

A medium scale project would be a suitable instrument to perform the previously mentioned work, followed by a large-scale project that would allow the development of a real scale installation.




1.2 Heat pumps utilising geothermal energy and sea water energy



There is a large potential to apply heat pump solutions in buildings in all the countries surrounding the Black Sea. At the same time there is large potential of low enthalpy geothermal energy plus the heat sink potential provided by the large water mass of the Black Sea. More specifically, it is proposed to investigate the long term performance of heat pumps in combination with sea water, for the specificities (climatic, environmental) of the region taking into account the large seasonal variations in temperature specific to a typical continental climate. At the same time, the effect on the bio-diversity of the Black Sea will be investigated in connection with the variations in the local temperature equilibrium.



This is an opportunity to investigate the application of advanced EU heat pump technologies in the region of the Black Sea, exploiting the potential provided by geothermal energy enhanced by the large sea mass available.


Expected Impact

The successful application of such a technology could lead to the installation of numerous systems, resulting to a significant market on one hand and major energy savings and environmental benefits on the other.


Appropriate Tool: Small-scale collaborative project.




1.3 Determination of liquid & solid biomass fuel production potential



There is considerable biomass potential in the Black Sea Region for the production of liquid and solid biofuels that could be used locally but also exported to the EU. The aim is to investigate the optimal pathways for exploiting local biomass resources in forests and agricultural waste but also from food or energy cultivations for the production of solid or liquid biofuels. In the process, the possibility to exploit some land currently not suitable for food production due to pollution but potentially suitable for the cultivation of energy crops will be investigated. The potential to use these cultivations in order to remove the pollutants will also be examined.

The economic impact of such an approach and its potential link to the EU Common Agriculture Policy will be investigated.



There is considerable biomass waste in agriculture and forestry that could prove to be a valuable source of wood pellets and liquid fuels, currently in great demand in some EU countries. A good estimation of this potential would be valuable to both the Black Sea region and to the EU, in view of future production and export of such renewable fuels.


Expected Impact

The exploitation of biomass resources available in the Black Sea region for the production of wood pellets or liquid biofuels would provide an additional source to cover a growing demand in the EU and would improve the European energy mix. 


Appropriate Tool: Small scale collaborative project.




2. Energy savings and energy efficiency



2.1 Evaluation of energy consumption behaviour and share in the residential sector in the Black Sea region


Brief description

The project objective is to determine and analyse the behaviour of the end-users in the Black Sea region countries, to estimate the share of energy consumption by home appliances, lighting, cooling and heating systems in residential buildings and to analyse the energy saving potential in this sector. A database for monitoring of the energy consumption and energy planning in the region will be developed. Sample projects will be conducted to demonstrate the specific regional energy saving opportunities and technologies.



The end-users behavior influences to a great extent the energy consumption in the residential buildings and has important effect on the potential for energy saving in this sector. At present there is not systematic knowledge about the end-user behavior in the Black Sea region. This project creates opportunity to investigate and determine some specific for the region models of end-user behavior and to provide database to the local authorities for energy planning. The study will also provide EU with valuable information for the region and especially for monitoring of the new country-members Bulgaria and Romania.


Expected impact

 The impact of the project is related to the improvement of the end-user culture in the region and thus to contribute significantly to the energy savings in the residential buildings. The results of this project could be a tool for projection of the energy needs and potential in the BS region, as well as for creation of energy efficiency culture for public.


Appropriate Tool: Small to medium scale collaborative project.






3. CO2 capture and storage technologies for zero emission power generation and Clean Coal technologies


3.1 CO2 capture and storage technologies for zero emission power generation in the Black Sea region


Brief description

The aim will be to improve the knowledge for the application of CO2 capture technologies, which consist of post-combustion and pre-combustion systems as well as oxyfuel combustion. Secondly, the potential storage sites for CO2 will be investigated by examining the deep saline aquifers, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, and coal bed methane seams of the region. The Black Sea region needs to be thoroughly investigated to examine potential storage sites at substantial depth. In addition, the ecological and social impact on the societies of the region from the capture and storage of CO2 will be examined. The existing legislative framework in the Black Sea countries will be examined and a socio-economic study will be delivered taking into consideration the various conditions in the region.



Most of the power generation systems in the Black Sea region rely on low quality coal, lignite, oil and natural gas with relatively low energy efficiency. This results to the release of significant amount of CO2 emissions in the atmosphere of the region. Substantial reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, including CO2, from fossil fuel power generation in the region of Black Sea can be achieved through the application of CO2 capture and sequestration technologies.


Expected impact

The benefit for the European Union will be the application of CO2 capture technologies in Black Sea countries and the identification of new storage sites in the Black Sea region which are not yet examined.  Furthermore, substantial improvement of the environmental conditions and the public health in the Black Sea region, by reducing the greenhouse gas emissions, will be achieved.


Appropriate Tool: Large to medium scale collaborative project as it includes several subprojects (CO2 capture, CO2 sequestration, socio-economic issues).    




3.2 : Co-combustion of coal and biomass for power generation in the Black Sea region


Brief description

The main objective is to evaluate the potential of biomass in Black Sea countries and to carry out research on the best technologies enabling the use of biomass in combination with coal in existing coal-fired power plants. The combustion parameters will be examined as well as the emissions and more specific CO2 emissions. Issues related to fuel quality control and heavy elements that might effect emissions need to be addressed.


In the countries of the Black Sea region biomass exists in considerable amounts but its availability is not constant all over the year. The biomass can be used to produce electricity. At the moment power generation in the Black Sea region is mainly based on low quality coal, lignite, oil and natural gas. The co-combustion and gasification of coal and/or lignite with biomass is proposed in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the region and use in efficient way the biomass already available in the region.


Expected impact

Increase of competitiveness of the European industry by expanding the market for its enabling technologies.  In addition, such research will contribute to the improvement of the environment and public health in the Black Sea region by reducing CO2 emissions.


Appropriate Tool: Large to medium scale collaborative project, including cooperation with the power generation industry.     




4. Smart energy networks



4.1   Development of intersystem connections of electrical transmission systems in the Black Sea region



The links between the national electricity transmission systems at a regional level is likely to allow for increased trading opportunities, higher cost-effectiveness and energy security in the BSEC region and the rest of Europe. The aim is to explore the existing technical obstacles to such an integrated regional scheme as well as the resulting benefits for the consumers in the region and in the EU countries. To this end, complex investigations of technical and economic aspects of the problem will be required.



The development of regional links between existing systems provides for the diversification of sources and transit routes by means of additional north-south and east-west power corridors. The specific problems to overcome are the different standards of voltage and frequency in the national energy systems.  Different standards may pose a problem for reliable cross- frontier exchanges between systems. Currently, the region has three different systems under distinct operating rules and procedures.


Expected impact

The concordance in this sphere is essential for improved and more secure and reliable power supply among the countries of the region as well as with partners operating within the integrated EU power grid. The scientific foundation for feasible technical solutions may also facilitate rational policy decisions concerning the broader possibilities for energy cooperation between the EU and Russia as well as with the other partners in the Black Sea region.


Appropriate Tool: Coordinated or support action.




5. Knowledge for energy policy making



5.1 Development of the South Energy Corridor (natural gas) connecting the wider BSEC – Central Asia area with the EU



Assessment tools, methods and models to examine the socio-economic factors affecting the energy corridor from the broader Caspian Sea region to the EU and its contribution to the diversification and the security of EU energy supply. This includes netback value estimations, sensitivity analysis, risk assessment, external cost estimation, natural gas production assessment, transportation cost estimation, transit fees policies etc. Issues to be examined are the energy corridor supply potential, optimization of transport routes by developing a multicriteria method, analysis of the intermediate markets potential and their compatibility to facilitate energy trade and investment along the corridor according to EU aquis.



The development of the South corridor connecting the hydrocarbon reserves of the Black Sea and Central Asia to EU, through Turkey and S.E. Europe, emerges as of paramount importance for the EU markets. Understanding the socio-economic factors affecting the energy corridor and more specifically the state of development and the trends and the potential of the intermediary energy markets will identify potential barriers and constraints, such as environmental concerns, legislative and institutional obstacles, affecting the development of the proposed corridor and contribute to the optimization of decisions yet to be made as well as to the overall consideration of the energy corridor issues.


Expected impact

Promote the wider Black Sea and Central Asia – EU energy corridor as a component of the EU energy security of supply. Better understanding of energy trade and investments constraints and opportunities in the region. Offer scientific support to key policy and decision makers of the region. Transfer of EU originated policy instruments, know-how, services and industry practices along the corridor.


Appropriate Tool: Medium scale collaborative project.




5.2 A regional Black Sea dimension of an emission trading scheme under the Kyoto Protocol and beyond


Brief description

The aim is to design and test the operational viability of an emission trading scheme adapted to the specific needs of the region, less ambitious and far-reaching than that of the EU in terms of commitments and legal requirements, but compatible with it. The study would also contain a view from the region on the way forward after the conclusion of the first period of implementation of the Kyoto Protocol.



All BSEC member states are signatories of the Kyoto Protocol, which has entered into force with regard to all of them. Most Black Sea countries are in a relatively advantageous position with regard to meeting their assigned targets for the 1st period of implementation. They still have huge reserves for emission reductions through increased energy efficiency and wider utilisation of natural CO2 sequestration opportunities (large certifiably sustainable forest areas, improved land use, etc) and proper reporting thereof.


Expected impact

There should be considerable added value for the EU in encouraging early implementation of the Kyoto Protocol instruments in the region, since this is likely to generate a reasonably large amount of tradable permits in a cost-effective way. Reaching the overall targets for Europe under the Framework Convention for Climate Change thus becomes realistic and more affordable.




5.3 Energy efficiency in power generation, transmission and distribution



The aim is to perform a strategic research analysis for energy efficiency improvement of the existing power generation / transmission / distribution systems in the Black Sea region. It is envisaged to study: alternative options for increasing energy efficiency, environmental and socio-economic costs and benefits for the EU and the Black Sea region taking into account national specific characteristics of power systems in the region.



Power generation in the Black Sea region is mostly based on Thermal Power Plants which burn low quality coal, oil or natural gas and which are primary sources of green house gases emission. Relatively old-fashioned technical and technological solutions for equipment/materials and intensive exploitation of power systems with low investment in maintenance, led to much lower level of energy efficiency, reliability and availability of Power Plants compared to similar units in the EU.  There are three different sets of standards in the region. Power systems in the Black Sea region have relatively higher specific fuel (energy) consumption and increased environmental pollution (soil, waterways and air, i.e. increased emission of green house gases having influence on climate changes) while transmission and distribution systems have higher energy losses. 


Expected impact

Primary energy resources saving, energy efficiency increase and reduction of green house gases emission, are of mutual interest of the Black See region and the rest of Europe.

Based on developed advanced applied methodology, the enhanced services and labour possibilities, reduce of power generation, transmission and distribution costs (due to lower energy losses) could be generated with additional social and economic impacts, especially on Power industry and all consumers in the Black Sea region (improving security of supply at affordable energy cost, using new material and technologies etc.).


Appropriate Tool: Coordinated or support action.


[1] BSEC: The Black Sea Economic Cooperation is an international organization currently including 12 Member States around the Black Sea and in the Balkan peninsula (www.bsec-organization.org).

[2] ‘The BSEC Action Plan on Cooperation in Science and Technology’ was adopted by the Ministers responsible for Research in Athens, (September 2005) http://www.icbss.org/ section ‘Action Plan’.


Thematic Workshop on ‘Environment’


Identification of topics of mutual EU – BSEC interest

in the field of ‘Environment’

to be considered under FP7


Organized in the frame of the

‘Research Potential of the BSEC Countries – ResPot’ Project

Funded under the Sixth Framework Programme of the EU

Athens, 16-17 October 2006



Conclusions and Recommendations



The Black Sea region situated at the Eastern border of the European Union includes EU Member States and Candidate Countries as well as countries addressed in the European Neighborhood policy and the strategic partnership with the Russian Federation.  The cooperation among this unique group of countries is picking up speed (e.g. adoption of ‘BSEC Action Plan for cooperation in S&T’[1]), leading to an integration process.  The integration of the Black Sea region, which is based on historical ties and is boosted by economical considerations, will increase the complementarities between this region and the European Union. 


The European Union, already acknowledging these complementarities is currently addressing a particular interest in the region and is working actively on an improved EU – Black Sea relationship.


The Black Sea region is rich in natural resources being at the same time the thruway for resources transportation. The Black Sea is the most isolated from the world ocean with high catchment area (surface ratio exceeding 6) that makes its ecosystems particularly sensitive to anthropogenic forcings and climatic changes. The region can be considered as a unique natural laboratory for climate change studies and ecosystem evolution under natural and anthropogenic pressures. A number of reports focusing on the state of the environment of the area have identified these pressures as eutrophication through agriculture, industrial activity and inputs of insufficiently treated sewage, contamination through input of harmful substances, and especially oil products, reduction of fish stocks, earthquakes, floods and natural disasters and introduction of alien species.

In addition, the region has rich cultural and natural heritage (historical land and underwater monuments, nature, etc.).

Within the spirit of the European Research Area (ERA), innovative and interdisciplinary approaches should be used to define, prioritize and propose actions to address environmental problems of the Black Sea region, estimate their environmental variability and thresholds and assess its capacity towards sustainable management of resources. In addition, the harmonization with EU environmental standards is an urgent need.


The Black Sea region possess a strong scientific potential on Environmental issues that can contribute significantly to all the objectives of the Thematic Priority “Environment” in the 7th Framework Programme.


In parallel, the Black Sea region presents a series of specificities that need particular attention since they present a specific mutual interest, in the context of the EU – Black Sea S&T cooperation in the field of Environment.  These specificities include:


A- Climate


Regional climate of the Black sea / Caspian regions and its impact on basins stratification, regional air-sea interaction, ecosystem and landscape dynamics.


The climatic problems have a significant impact to the economy and to the strategy for economic development. The tendencies, which follow from the analysis of the global climate change, always have their regional specificity. The peculiarities of the Black Sea regional climate and its extreme manifestations should be analyzed and predicted to assure sustainable trade and energy supplies, resorts and other coastal infrastructure development, safe evolution of marine ecosystems. The specificity of the Black and Caspian seas as closed seas reflects in the basin stratification, sediments and sea level rise and falls.  The transfer to the region of new observational technologies will be the base of new knowledge for the global climate evolution in the past times, which is important for the correct prediction of the future climate changes that are so important for the European, as well as for the Word evolution and economy.


A.1 Paleoclimate of the Black and Caspian seas.


The isolated basins Caspian and Black Seas are unique laboratories for past climate change evaluation. At present the knowledge of the past climate variability is provided by the results obtained from ice core or coral reef analyses. Nevertheless, the recent mid latitude paleo‑climate approach faces the fact that the Global Ocean reacts or has reacted with delay to the atmospheric climate change (hysteresis effect). The Black Sea and Caspian Sea, being in direct connection with the draining rivers of the melting of the ice (Danube, Dniper, Dniestr, Don, Volga,  Kura etc.) and disconnected from the Global Ocean recorded perfectly this climate variability and are prefect archive for pas climate variability record.

This archives are preserved in the Black Sea and Caspian Sea stratigraphy and could be used when interpreted to climate modeling which need to be feed by past climate records to understand the future.



If you want to understand future climate variability, knowledge of the past is needed. For this the Black Sea and Caspian Sea provide one of the best World records of the last rapid climate changes.


Expected impact

More new accurate paleo‑climate results to feed running climate models will be provided. The Black Sea and Caspian receiving basins from big rivers make them good recorder of changes in the climate and water cycle.



Black Sea and Caspian Sea countries started preliminary paleo‑environmental climate studies in these regions and need European collaboration for standardization of models.


Most appropriate tool: Large scale project.



A. 2 Formation stability and overturning of the regional seas stratification.


The Black Sea and the Caspian basins have specific story of the formation and evolution of thermohaline stratification. They are also good natural laboratories of turbulent mixing studies. There is evidence of the overturning of the Caspian Sea but the stability of the Black Sea stratification is not investigated yet. The BS has restricted exchange with the Global Ocean (a restricted pathway through Bosporus), so a strong permanent halocline develops and it was believed that it prevents deep ventilation in the interior of the Black Sea. However recent profiling float data released by the Black Sea riparian countries observed intense deep currents, which indicates that deep ventilation could be underestimated.



Black and Caspian seas are basins without strong tides. Therefore they could be considered as examples of the mixing processes alternative to that induced by the breaking of tide generated internal waves and their specific input to the formation of the basins stratification. The study of the basins stratification stability is important for the forecasting of potential abrupt changes of the basin-scale water mass structure and their impact to the ecosystem. The stratification formation and evolution is directly connected with the deep-circulation formation and with ventilation processes.


Expected impact

More efficient mixing parameterization will be proposed which makes possible to increase the quality of medium-range and long-term climatic forecasts of the basin evolution. Stability analysis should show the probability of significant changes of the basin dynamics and its impact to the basin ecosystem. The understanding of the Black Sea deep circulation is important for the correct climatic prediction of the basin dynamics and ecosystem.



The set of scientific groups cooperated under the umbrella of the Black Sea GOOS[2] project and participated in FP5 and FP6 projects ARENA, ASCABOS are able to fulfill this work in cooperation with European scientists.


Most appropriate tool: Medium size project



A.3 Regional climate modulation by the air-sea-aerosol interaction.


The Black/Caspian seas provide examples of the regional air-sea interaction with monsoon – like atmospheric effects. This regional modulation could be important for the climatic changes in the region. The Black Sea subjected also to the remote climatic control from the Eastern Mediterranean through the aerosol transport. Aerosols play a key role in weather modification and climate. The Eastern Mediterranean area is the crossroad of aerosols e.g. Sahara dust and Arabian dust in the case of the Black Sea countries. The aerosol transport provides possible links to the climate variability and weather modification between Eastern Mediterranean and the Black/Caspian Sea regions.



Regional weather modification and prediction as well as climate evolution may be strongly affected by a possible interaction with Eastern Mediterranean area, a question to be investigated. Therefore it is imperative that the driving mechanisms must be fully understood.


Expected impact

The knowledge to be gained from such studies will be valuable to European Union and non-European Union member countries in the sense that the understanding of the mechanisms that drive weather may influence Southern Europe and Black/Caspian Sea region. Moreover, climate change characteristics in the Black Sea area may prove to have an impact on the European continent. This further has a direct impact on the sustainable economic development in Europe.



Several research groups from the Black Sea countries are active in the field of climate and weather modeling. With the implementation of a co-operation with European Union research teams a mutual scientific benefit will be gained.


Most appropriate tool: Medium-sized research projects.



A.4 Assessment of the climatological and agrometeorological conditions in Black Sea region as a result of global climate change


The Black Sea region is characterized by the high level of agricultural production. Therefore the climate change will influence the quantity and quality of agriculture production and food provision. Evaluation of the impact of climate change on land use, agriculture, recreation conditions and landscape biodiversity dynamics is an important regional problem.

Climate change also will contribute to the development of the desertification processes in the region.



Climate has a great influence on the productivity on the natural and man-made landscapes. Therefore, the assessment of the climatological and agrometeorological conditions will determine the landscape potential and will contribute to an increased food production and optimization of the land use.


Expected impact

The solution of the problem will contribute to increase of the food security and improve human life conditions.



There is expertise and initial results obtained by the Black Sea region specialists in the field of the assessment of the climate condition from models obtained by climate change simulation and also from agro-climatic and unfavorable meteorological phenomena.


Most appropriate tool: Medium size project.




A.5 Determination of pollutant hot spots and sensitive areas in the Black Sea region (e.g. land based sources of pollution).


The areas that are under threat of pollution as well as the already polluted areas of the region need to be assessed. Determination of the pollutant sources, mainly from land based sources, the adverse impacts on the environment, flora, fauna and endangered species, future trends, risks to be encountered, precautions and remedies, are among the activities under this topic. Remote sensing technologies could be tested to monitor the pollution. Management strategy could be developed by taking into consideration the specific nature and characteristics of the region. 

The pollutants of the coastal zones to consider include domestic wastewaters, urban solid wastes, heavy metals, organic halogen compounds, radioactive substances, nutrients and hazardous wastes, causing detrimental effects on the environment.



The lack of implementation of standards for discharges as well as the lack of application of relevant EU waste management and minimization directives worsens the situation in the Black Sea region and in particular in the coastal zones that are considered as international resources.  Hence, assessment and upgrading of hot spots and sensitive areas with regard to pollutant loads and assimilation capacity, as well as development of pollution monitoring strategy and discharge standards along with the technology options for complying the regional, social and economical conditions, prioritization of the issues and implementation plan taking into account future trends, are of vital importance. 


Expected impact

The identification of regional sources bringing pollution to the air, land, marine, river and ground waters, is the basis for:

-                            The evaluation of the trans-boundary pollution transport and of its effect on the EU countries,

-                            The estimation of the pollution risks in the major recreation and tourist areas and

-                            The assessment of the pressure on the regional ecosystem including the eutrophication of marine basins.

The expected impacts include the conservation of natural resources and ecosystems, sustainable management of the coastal zones that will increase its attractiveness for tourism and recreation, improved integration with the EU Member States in monitoring and strategic actions to control pollution.



The set of EC funded projects for the assessment of the coastal land and marine ecosystem are a solid basis of any further work in this field.


Most appropriate tool: Large scale project.



A.6 Development of the regional forecasting and early warning systems for natural hazards


Observation, forecasting and early warning systems for natural hazards such as storms, storm surges, flooding, earthquakes, and forest fires in the Black Sea region for prevention and mitigation of environmental destruction and protection of human life.



The Black Sea region faces the danger of several natural disasters such as storms, storm surges, flooding, seismic risks, and forest fires. Due to climate changes the number and severity of storms have increased in the last 50 years. Often storm surges cause flooding having destructive impact on the natural and man-made environment and threat the human life. Climate change is also relevant for increased possibility of forest fires that devastate thousands of hectares of forests every summer in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

On the other hand, the Black Sea region is well known with its high seismic activity. Non-stopping natural disasters`- earthquakes cause great material damage accompanied by people’s victims. As a rapid growth of the population and the density of human settlements and in economic investments, the overall of human and material losses due to earthquakes has increased rapidly and steadily during present century and especially during last 30 years. Taking into consideration that natural disasters as earthquakes and their symptoms do not have just local character, their forecasting can be carried out only by means of large-scale monitoring on a vast territory. The territory of high seismic risk includes Southern Spain, Italy, Albania, Greece, Romania, Moldova, Ukraine, Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Southern Russia. Effective exchange of seismic information between all the BSEC countries that conduct research in the field of seismology is required, but not sufficient for effective forecasting natural hazards. That’s why EU-Black Sea cooperation in research makes them more effective and mutually beneficial.

The Black Sea region being densely populated and with high concentration of important infrastructure (oil and gas pipes, TRACECA[3]) and navigation routes, the problem for forecasting and early warning for hazardous events becomes critical. Development of such a system would facilitate the management and supply information to combating agencies.


Expected Impact

The major economic interests of the EU in the Black Sea region such as the sustainable transport of oil and gas, the safety of new trade routes, the improvement of the regional recreation and tourist potential, etc., will benefit from the proposed forecasting and early warning systems. Particular benefits that could be listed include:

  1. The protection from coastal erosion and preservation of natural resources.
  2. A better management (coastal zone, forest, seismic risk) and improved/timely disaster mitigation measures.
  3. Safety of navigation, of offshore operations and of industrial complexes and infrastructure facilities.
  4. Guarantee the safety of people during earthquakes of high magnitude by finding low cost methods for supporting old constructions and buildings.
  5. Avoiding economic losses by using more precise maps of seismic activity for urban planning.
  6. Preservation of European landscapes.



The set of scientific groups cooperated under the umbrella of the Black Sea GOOS project and participated in FP5 and FP6 projects ARENA, ASCABOS are able to implement this work in cooperation with European scientists.  In addition, the basin-wide early warning system will be based on existing in each country civil protection agencies, maritime administrations and seismologic network, using the previous experience of collaboration, e.g. in the frame of the Association of Seismic Protection of the Black Sea and Balkans States.


Most appropriate tool: Large scale project.



B- Sustainable Management  of Resources


B.1  Exploitation and transport of mineral resources: impact on environment.


BS region is still reach in nature (biological and mineral) resources that can be utilized by EU. Exploitation of these resources, especially mineral has a big and negative impact on environment.  Developing of appropriate and contemporary management and monitoring system harmonized with the regulations would immensely increase the order responsibility changes and compliance with the requirements of EU.



The current situation among BS countries in relation to regional environmental policy is quite inhomogeneous, without real concept and harmonized communications related to environmental problem that are obviously great the evident need for the set up of the mutual programs for exchange of monitoring data, policies for improving environmental conditions based on EU standards and planning for the corridors for transport of gods and raw materials towards EU are of primary importance.


Expected Impact

An enhanced cooperation between the Black Sea countries and EU in the assessment of water and air pollution, will contribute to the introduction of EU standards in the management of the exploitation and of the transport of the natural resources from the Black Sea region, improving the socio-economic, cultural and environmental situation in the whole region including EU countries.

Upgrading and updating of the monitoring and management systems will also have a considerable impact in the investment planning and will contribute to the assessment of the Black Sea region response to the trans-boundary transports and in particular in the river and air pollution related to the exploitation and transport of mineral resources and their impact to the land, marine and coastal zones.


Most appropriate tool: Large collaborative project.



B.2 Ecosystem oriented management of coastal waters under pollution threats and development of Decision Support Systems (DSS).


A management system(s) need to be developed by taking into account the ecosystem conditions for the coastal zones in the Black Sea region and especially the zones under high pollution thread.  The system should integrate the main actors that affect the coastal zones from an ecologic, commercial and social point of view.  The approach should combine natural and human systems to achieve sustainable development and should constitute a remedy for the mutual problems of the region.  Along these lines, DSS should be developed for the selected case study areas representing general conditions as well as the problems encountered.  The developed DSS should be used by decision makers as well as by engineers and technicians dealing with aspects of Coastal Zone Management. 



Principally coastal zones are systems including multi-users and multi-resources.  These areas are suppliers of valuable resources and highly productive, meeting the demands for environmental and economic goods and services.  In order to get an acceptable balance with long-term productivity and short-term demands, the system should be understood properly and supported by sound engineering technologies.  Semi-enclosed areas (e.g. bays) that have limited self-purification capacity are polluted from land based sources.  Their ecological and biogeochemical characteristics change drastically in short period of time.  For this reason, especially in the hotspot areas under pollution threats, “ecosystem oriented management approach” supported with new techniques such as decision support systems is very crucial and necessary for the selection of the best suitable technological investments. 


Expected impact

The development of Decision Support Systems will constitute a very valuable tool for the authorities, especially for the definition of investment plans.  In addition, the necessary research, which is of multidisciplinary character, will involve technology transfer from other parts of Europe and will serve as a model for the Black Sea region.


Most appropriate tool: Medium scale project.



B.3  Water pollution prevention options for coastal zones and tourist areas.


Conventional water management approach and the technologies applied are not suitable for the coastal zones, especially for those with tourist activities. The main reasons are:

·        The environmentally sensitive landscape, and

·        The seasonal fluctuation of the population and of the corresponding waste loads.

This impact is even greater when water scarcity exists during the summer season, coinciding with a strong tourist load.  Hence development and implementation of technologies designed specifically for these conditions are necessary. They should be based on close water cycle and on decentralized water management tolls. 



In coastal zones human activities including increasing tourism have adverse impact on the environment. In the region these areas are mostly considered as hot spots and sensitive in origin.  The existing management facilities are not sufficient for satisfying the strong demand in water and the same time the pollution prevention in accordance with the environmental standards.  Hence, the development of management tolls and technologies allowing for reuse / recycle for the existing treatment systems in the coastal zones, as well as the development of innovative robust economically sound methods or technologies for the decentralized settlements and tourist facilities are important for a sustainable water management.


Expected impact

  • Mitigation of pollutants discharged to the Black Sea from settlements in tourist areas,
  • Preservation of the water resources by developing sustainable water management tolls adapted to the local conditions and needs,
  • Impacts on the tourism and socio economic life,
  • Clean environment, hence positive effects on productivity,
  • Agricultural advances by reuse of water for irrigation,
  • Compliance to EU environmental standards that will contribute to the European integration.


Most appropriate tool: Medium scale project.



B.4 Sustainable management of natural and man-made ecosystems of the Black Sea and Caspian Region and development of the regional Decision Support System


Increase knowledge on rare and unique ecosystems and habitats (littoral, Danube Delta, coastal mountains, steppes, floodplains, Pontic subtropical forests, etc.); coastal wetlands; forests; urban and degraded systems, agricultural lands. Develop model practices in ecosystem management. Create regional databases (including classification, mapping, GIS applications) for different types of natural resources management. Develop of common methodology for environmental monitoring. Investigate and adopt traditional practices of land and water use in modern nature management. Provide research on historical ecology including historical relations of humans and nature in Anthropogenic period and investigate reaction of ecosystems on human impact. Develop the Strategies of Sustainable Development of the Black Sea/Caspian coastal zone with taking into consideration geo-ecological and social-economic conditions. Setting-up of Sustainable Development indicators for the region. Forecast trends of ecosystem changes.



The BS region is a centre of ancient civilizations. It is a geo-biotic centre that determines a high level of biodiversity and ecological values. Due to unsustainable use of natural resources (increased tourism, construction, recreation, transport, forest cutting, pollution etc.) the unique natural and cultural heritage is threatened. More knowledge is required to provide adequate measures for mitigation of different kinds of threats especially in urban areas. Spatial planning will decrease the conflicts between human activities and biodiversity.


Expected impact

The activities will lead to:

  • improvement of ecological and social stability and livelihoods in the region;
  • promoting better conditions for economic transformation and development;
  • creation of a common platform of experts in sustainable management involving EU and Black Sea countries;
  • strengthening of ecological expertise;
  • establishment of sustainable ecological networks;
  • decrease of knowledge fragmentation;
  • providing support for knowledge based decision-making and environmental action plans preparation;
  • facilitating restoration of natural ecosystems;
  • halting the biodiversity decline.



B.5 Gas Hydrates
Significant questions on the regional and global (worldwide) importance of fluid vents and associated gas hydrate accumulations are still pending. From recent results and previous joint projects between European and Black Sea riparian countries, multiple Black Sea simulating reflectors interpreted as gas hydrate fields have been evidenced. These multiple Bottom Simulating Reflectors (BSR) linked to sea-bottom paleotemperature record could be explained as corresponding to stable cold climate episodes and in such a case they might represent valuable keys to our understanding of the global climate history. More, gas hydrate destabilisation related to climate modification can result in sedimentary instabilities and be so at the origin of marine landslides creating possible tsunami causes.
The Black Sea is also famous for its unique mud volcanoes (more than 100) present on land in the Kerch and Taman peninsulas where some of them are still active. 
The Black Sea is a real case study and important research issues have to be addressed to answer:
1)         The role of sub-surface methane and other gases to global climatic changes, particular those related to marine geochemical cycles;
2)         The relative importance of sea-floor seepage as indicators of hydrocarbon fields below the surface;
3)         Ecosystem research on mud volcanoes and other areas of significant gas seepage;
4)         Gas hydrates as proxies for old climatic conditions, development and preservation of gas hydrates on continental margins;
5)         Gas seepage and gas hydrates as inducers of slope instability on continental margins.
Mud volcanoes comprise the largest gas seepage features on continental margins and they are oftentimes considered as the surface expression of buried hydrocarbon accumulations at depth. Therefore, the identification of new mud volcano fields on continental margins is significant to the recognition of new areas for future oil and gas exploration, particularly when mud volcanoes can be associated at depth with extensive gas hydrate fields. Such association has been demonstrated in several mud volcano sites in the Black Sea.
Expected impact
Since the Black Sea can be considered as a test laboratory, the result from these activities will provide valuable input to exploration and possible exploitation of Gas Hydrates.  In addition, these activities will be useful for further understanding of rapid climate variability and of natural hazards such as landslides.  The economic impact could be important if exploitation of Gas Hydrates is commercially viable, but also in terms of minimization of natural risks. 



C- Environmental technologies


C.1 Development of Environmental Technologies for Sensitive Areas of the Region


The exploitation of the natural (bio & mineral) resources and the monitoring of ecosystem state in BS region was, and still is, accomplished by old technologies that are not harmonized with IPPC (Integrated Pollution and Prevention Control) directive and BAT (best available techniques).

In view of the harmonization with EU there is a need to improve the background knowledge and economy to implement IPPC and BAT.  Decentralized technologies that allow reuse/recycle options will be assessed and implemented, especially for coastal zones.



The existing production and waste management technologies in the BS region do not comply with the ones in EU countries. This in turn results in the generation of high pollutant loads.  In addition to that the standards also do not match with the EU.  Hence, in order to improve this situation there is a need to adopt the technologies by taking into account the local conditions and mutual benefits.  This will help the integration and compliance process of the EU and will result in reduction of the waste loads for the point of environmental welfare.  


Expected Impacts

Harmonization with EU standards. Improvement of the knowledge on BAT. Improvement of the environmental conditions in the Black Sea region (land, marine and costal region). Opening the market for sustainable technologies and/or environmental friendly techniques. Establishment of a better costal zone management.


Adoption of the environmental technologies that correspond to the needs of Black Sea Country’s economy such as emergency response and observation systems, monitoring, remediation technologies, sustainable industrial faculties/processes. 


Most appropriate tool: Medium sized projects.



D- Earth observation and assessment tools


D.1 Assessing and implementing the BS contribution to the GEOSS and GMES


The potential contribution of the BS region to the nine (9) GEO societal benefit areas should be assessed leading to the identification of: i) strengths and weaknesses of the current BS capabilities and ii) certain test cases. An initial implementation of the systems selected as test cases should be undertaken.



1) The lessons learnt in undertaking the practical implementation of selected systems should provide valuable lessons to the GEO community

2) The development to the BS contribution to the GEOSS and GMES

3) The demonstration of the actual benefits of the GEOSS to the BS region.



Countries of the Black Sea region have good experience in building regional atmospheric and marine systems for the nowcasting and forecasting of marine pollution and ecosystem state. This experience will be extended to the coastal areas of the major basins. The set of countries of the region (new EU members, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine) have plans of the national GEOSS development and collaboration with GMES. 


Most appropriate tool: Large scale project.



D.2 Assessment of EU – Black Sea climate policy interactions.


Two neighbouring regions like EU and Black Sea share several trans boundary problems (climate change, air, soil, sea and water pollution). Therefore, there is a need to harmonize policies and measures for confronting these problems. Assessment tools, models, indicators and evaluation studies are necessary for outlining the specific priorities of each region and pointing out convergence problems. Explore links between their economies, societies and environments will provide the necessary information sharing.



European policy makers will be facilitated in designing new tools or improving the effectiveness of already implemented ones. The tools, models and studies will be used for the cases of other neighbouring regions such as North Africa.


Expected impact

The Black Sea countries can be the hosts of Joint Implementation (JI) and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. European companies and installations can be potential investors for such projects. The assessment of interactions between the climate policies of EU and Black Sea countries will allow both sides to identify economic, environmental, legal and societal barriers for the implementation of mutual interest JI and CDM projects (in energy efficiency, renewable energy sources, fuel switch, deforestation etc). The results are twofold. First, potential European stakeholders will be facilitated in recognizing investment opportunities within the Black Sea region. Second, the development of a systematic assessment tool for interactions is useful for policy makers in the meta-Kyoto era.


Most appropriate tool: Medium size project.


[1] http://www.icbss.org/ Section ‘Action Plan’

[2] Global Ocean Observing System.

[3] Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia.

Опубліковано на сайті: 2007-01-30

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